Literature


Literature is a written text that is deemed to give artistic or intellectual value to deploy language in different ways from kinds them. Its Latin root is literatura/litteratura (derived from littera: letter or handwriting) that is used to refer to all written accounts.

  • What is the main purposes to learn literature?

It learns about allusions and references to different aspects of culture in the world which helps us to expand knowledges of language.

  • Why should we learn it?

Because It helps us to increase literacy of language, It can develop us in creative thinking, and It can help us to understand sense of high art in literature.

  • What is the type of literature?

The type of literatute is like poetry, short story, novel, and drama.

Poetry

Poetry is a form of literary art which uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language to evoke meanings. Poetry lyrics express personal and emotional feeling. It is generally to use  figures of speech, such as metaphor, simile, and metonymy.

Poetry sounds are like:

  • Cacophony (how to invent stress sounds, such as; sadness, gloomy).
  • Euphony (how to invent happiness sounds, such as; lovely feeling, bravery).
  • Onomathopin (how to invent organism’s sound).

The ways to read a poetry:

  • Vocal (produce the sounds)
  • Articulation (pronounce the words clearly)
  • Diction ( sense of art in pronounciation each word)
  • Interruption (fast and slow in pronounciation)
  • Dynamic (balance in carrying the situation)
  • Modulation (change the sounds in reading a poetry)
  • Intonation ( a stress in words)
  • Expression (planting or appreciation in reading a poetry)
  • Communication (build the situasion by the audiences)

Short Story

Short story is a piece of prose fiction, which can be read in a single sitting.The maximum word count of the short story at anywhere from 1,000 to 4,000.

Elements of short story

  • Intrinsic: tema, plot,  setting, character, point of view, and morality value
  • Extrinsic: sociology, psychology, and philosophy

Point of view: first person, second person, and third person

  • First person refers to “I”.
  • Second person refers to “You”.
  • Third person refers to “He, She, It”.

Kinds of plot: progressive, flashback, and mixing plot.

Simile and Metaphor are both methods to make comparisons.

  • Simile, these comparisons are made using words “like” or “as” (such as; She swims like a fish,  He cries like a baby).
  • Metaphor, a thing that is described is referred to as the thing to which it is being compared.

It makes a comparison between seemingly unlike things without “like” or “as” (such as; This room is an oven, You are my sun shine).

Novel

Novel is a long narrative in prose which describes fictional characters and events. It usually has aesthetic feature to readers in storytelling.

Elements in novel:

  • Intrinsic: tema, plot,  setting, character, point of view, and morality value
  • Extrinsic: sociology, psychology, and philosophy

Kinds of novel: fiction and non fiction

Genre: romance, mystery thriller, fantasy, science fiction, adventure, horror, etc.

Point of view: first person, second person, and third person

  • First person refers to “I”.
  • Second person refers to “You”.
  • Third person refers to “He, She, It”.

Methods in storytelling: telling and showing

The telling and showing are distinction to capture two different modes of presenting events in a narrative. In a first approximation, the distinction can be taken quite literally: in the showing mode, the narrative evokes in readers the impression that they are shown the events of the story or that they somehow witness them. While in the telling mode, the narrative evokes in readers the impression that they are told about the events. Using a spatial metaphor, the showing mode is also called a narrative with “small distance,” presumably because readers get the impression that they are somehow near the events of the story, while the telling mode correspondingly evokes the impression of a “large distance” between readers and the events.

Kinds of plot: progressive, flashback, and mixing plot.

Simile and Metaphor are both methods of making comparisons.

  • Simile, these comparisons are made using words “like” or “as” (such as; She swims like a fish,  He cries like a baby).
  • Metaphor, a thing that is described is referred to as the thing to which it is being compared.

It makes a comparison between seemingly unlike things without “like” or “as” (such as; This room is an oven, You are my sun shine).

Drama

Drama is a written composition that tell a serious story to include plot, conflicts, emotions, action of characters, dialogues, and designed for theatrical performance.

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