In golden ages of ancient Greek, Aristotle was one of the greatest philosophers that gave to contribute to all human in knowledges and literature. Literature consists of novel, poetry, short story, drama, etc.
What do you know about the meaning of aesthetics?
Aesthetics is the study of beauty and taste. It is about interpreting works of art and art movements or theories. The term aesthetic is also used to designate a particular style, for example; “Japanese aesthetics“. As well as being applied to art, aesthetics can also be applied to cultural objects. Aesthetic design principles include ornamentation, edge delineation, texture, flow, solemnity, symmetry, color, granularity, the interaction of sunlight and shadows, transcendence, and harmony.
Drama is referred for theatrical performance. It is a clear acts in storytelling directly. each drama has a morality value in the end of story.
So, what is the drama?
Drama is a written composition that tell a serious story to include plot, conflicts, emotions, action of characters, dialogues, and designed for theatrical performance.
Drama is often combined with music and dance. Drama in opera is generally sung. Example of drama: Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare.
Traditional drama is divided in comedy and tragedy
- Comedy is presented by laughing face.
- Tragedy is presented by weeping face.
3 structure in drama (aristotle):
1. Set up
Set up is how to introduce characters and desire of protagonist.
2. Development or confrontation
Development is obstacle of protagonist to get a desire it .
Resolution is protagonist’s end of journey.
Romeo and Juliet
- Idea: tragic romance of two teenagers.
- Premise: Romeo and Juliet fall love deeply but their families are bitter enemies.
Ruling house of Verona
- Prince Escalus is the ruling Prince of Verona.
- Count Paris is a kinsman of Escalus who wishes to marry Juliet.
- Mercutio is another kinsman of Escalus, and a friend of Romeo.
House of Capulet
- Capulet is the patriarch of the house of Capulet.
- Lady Capulet is the matriarch of the house of Capulet.
- Juliet is the 13-year-old daughter of Capulet, and the play’s female protagonist.
- Tybalt is a cousin of Juliet, and the nephew of Lady Capulet.
- The Nurse is Juliet’s personal attendant and confidante.
- Rosaline is Lord Capulet’s niece, and Romeo’s love in the beginning of the story.
- Peter, Sampson and Gregory are servants of the Capulet household.
House of Montague
- Montague is the patriarch of the house of Montague.
- Lady Montague is the matriarch of the house of Montague.
- Romeo is the son of Montague, and the play’s male protagonist.
- Benvolio is Romeo’s cousin and best friend.
- Abram and Balthasar are servants of the Montague household.
- Friar Laurence is a Franciscan friar, and is Romeo’s confidant.
- Friar John is sent to deliver Friar Laurence’s letter to Romeo.
- An Apothecary who reluctantly sells Romeo poison.
- A Chorus reads a prologue to each of the first two acts.
The play, set in Verona, begins with a street brawl between Montague and Capulet servants who, like their masters, are sworn enemies. Prince Escalus of Verona intervenes and declares that further breach of the peace will be punishable by death. Later, Count Paris talks to Capulet about marrying his daughter Juliet, but Capulet asks Paris to wait another two years and invites him to attend a planned Capulet ball. Lady Capulet and Juliet’s nurse try to persuade Juliet to accept Paris’s courtship.
Meanwhile, Benvolio talks with his cousin Romeo, Montague’s son, about Romeo’s recent depression. Benvolio discovers that it stems from unrequited infatuation for a girl named Rosaline, one of Capulet’s nieces. Persuaded by Benvolio and Mercutio, Romeo attends the ball at the Capulet house in hopes of meeting Rosaline. However, Romeo instead meets and falls in love with Juliet. Juliet’s cousin, Tybalt, is enraged at Romeo for sneaking into the ball, but is only stopped from killing Romeo by Juliet’s father, who doesn’t wish to shed blood in his house. After the ball, in what is now called the “balcony scene”, Romeo sneaks into the Capulet orchard and overhears Juliet at her window vowing her love to him in spite of her family’s hatred of the Montagues. Romeo makes himself known to her and they agree to be married. With the help of Friar Laurence, who hopes to reconcile the two families through their children’s union, they are secretly married the next day.
Tybalt, meanwhile, still incensed that Romeo had sneaked into the Capulet ball, challenges him to a duel. Romeo, now considering Tybalt his kinsman, refuses to fight. Mercutio is offended by Tybalt’s insolence, as well as Romeo’s “vile submission” and accepts the duel on Romeo’s behalf. Mercutio is fatally wounded when Romeo attempts to break up the fight. Grief-stricken and wracked with guilt, Romeo confronts and slays Tybalt.
Montague argues that Romeo has justly executed Tybalt for the murder of Mercutio. The Prince, now having lost a kinsman in the warring families’ feud, exiles Romeo from Verona, under penalty of death if he ever returns. Romeo secretly spends the night in Juliet’s chamber, where they consummate their marriage. Capulet, misinterpreting Juliet’s grief, agrees to marry her to Count Paris and threatens to disown her when she refuses to become Paris’s “joyful bride”. When she then pleads for the marriage to be delayed, her mother rejects her.
Juliet visits Friar Laurence for help, and he offers her a potion that will put her into a deathlike coma for “two and forty hours” The Friar promises to send a messenger to inform Romeo of the plan, so that he can rejoin her when she awakens. On the night before the wedding, she takes the drug and, when discovered apparently dead, she is laid in the family crypt.
The messenger, however, does not reach Romeo and, instead, Romeo learns of Juliet’s apparent death from his servant Balthasar. Heartbroken, Romeo buys poison from an apothecary and goes to the Capulet crypt. He encounters Paris who has come to mourn Juliet privately. Believing Romeo to be a vandal, Paris confronts him and, in the ensuing battle, Romeo kills Paris. Still believing Juliet to be dead, he drinks the poison. Juliet then awakens and, finding Romeo dead, stabs herself with his dagger. The feuding families and the Prince meet at the tomb to find all three dead. Friar Laurence recounts the story of the two “star-cross’d lovers”. The families are reconciled by their children’s deaths and agree to end their violent feud. The play ends with the Prince’s elegy for the lovers: “For never was a story of more woe/Than this of Juliet and her Romeo.”